Nickel Smelting Process

Lecture 20 Smelting Contents - NPTEL

Lecture 20 Smelting Contents Preamble Matte smelting What is Matte What is Slag Industrial copper smelting Exercise is matte smelting References Key words: Matte smelting, Flash smelting ,Reduction smelting Preamble Smelting is a unit process for pyro metallurgical extraction of …

Environmental Guidelines for Nickel Smelting and Refining

437 Nickel Smelting and Refining Wet scrubbimg should be avoided and cooling waters should be recirculated. Storm waters should be collected and used in the process. Process water used to transport granulated slag should be recycled. To the extent possible, all process effluents should be returned to the process. Treatment Technologies

An overview of Southern African PGM smelting

Nickel of Russia. Smaller (but still significant) quantities of PGMs are produced by Falconbridge and Inco of Canada, also as co-products from nickel sulphide smelting. There are many similarities between PGM smelting and nickel sulphide smelting, and the range of technologies in use includes six-in-line rectangular electric furnaces, three-

Nickel Laterite’s Integral Role in the Coming Nickel Boom ...

Arguably the most well known and widely used processing technique for extracting payable metals is smelting. The smelting of nickel laterite ore is no different, as the smelting process is the dominant technique and is typically used to make nickel pig iron (NPI) for the Chinese stainless steel market.

Nickel Flash Smelting :: Total Materia Article

Using nickel flash smelting technology it is possible to process sulfide nickel concentrate and produce nickel matte and slag in a relatively efficient process. Any materials resulting as smelting and converting slags are recirculated in the electric furnace and recovered where possible as nickel matte.


smelting process that is easy to operate. It can be used for a range of applications including primary and secondary copper smelting and copper converting, primary and secondary lead smelting, primary nickel smelting and converting, and tin, zinc and precious metals smelting. The …


AN INTRODUCTION TO OUTOTEC FLASH SMELTING With flexibility, low energy consumption, high sulfur capture, and excellent economy of scale, Outotec Flash Smelting technology is the world’s leading method for copper and nickel smelting. More than half of the world’s primary copper and nickel is produced using Outotec’s proprietary process.

The smelting operations of Anglo American’s platinum ...

The smelting operations of Anglo American’s platinum business: an update R.J. Hundermark, S.B. Mncwango, L.P.vS. de Villiers, and L.R. Nelson ... reviews of the PGM smelting industry5 and the sulfidic nickel smelting ... Converting Process (ACP) where the matte is upgraded through removal of the

12.3 Primary Copper Smelting

A typical pyrometallurgical copper smelting process, as illustrated in Figure 12.3-1, includes 4 steps: roasting, smelting, concentrating, and fire refining. Ore concentration is roasted to reduce impurities, including sulfur, antimony, arsenic, and lead. The roasted product, calcine, serves as a dried and heated charge for the smelting furnace.

Nickel: smelting, producing-Metalpedia

Outotec® Nickel Flash Smelting Process is a benchmark nickel-smelting method and a clear global leader in the world’s primary nickel production from sulfide raw materials. Efficiency and improved environmental and in-plant hygiene have been the guiding principles in developing the process.

Modelling of Nickel Laterite Smelting to Ferronickel

Overall, the modelling of the electric furnace smelting of nickel laterite calcines has provided useful insights into the nature of the process, especially the way in which the Fe/Ni ratio of laterite and the target nickel grade of the ferronickel affect process performance.

Indonesia’s Investment in New Nickel Smelting Reaches USD ...

Indonesia’s Energy and Mineral Resources Ministry announced on Dec. 27 that there are 13 new nickel smelters that completed construction by October 2017 with total investment of $5.03 billion. The smelters produce a variety of nickel products, including Nickel Pig Iron, Ferronickel Dan NiHidoxide, the ministry said in a statement. The smelters have processed total […]

The Smelting Process - Sudbury INO

Sudbury Integrated Nickel Operations’ Smelter receives concentrates from its own mines as well as feeds from third parties which includes concentrates and other materials bearing nickel and cobalt as well as other pay metals. These feeds are blended into the process at …

Nickel Processing | Nickel | Smelting

Flash Smelting . Matte Refining . LATERITE ORE PROCESSES • Ferro-Nickel process (pyrometallurgical processing). or • Caron Process (combinations of hydro and pyrometallurgical processes) . • HPAL (hydrometallurgical processing). coke and/or coal are the other second raw materials that are needed in ferro-nickel production.

Nickel mining: the hidden environmental cost of electric ...

Aug 24, 2017· Nickel mining: the hidden environmental cost of electric cars ... problems associated with exposure to pollution generated by nickel mining and smelting ... that the nickel …

Smelting - Wikipedia

Smelting is a process of applying heat to ore in order to extract a base metal.It is a form of extractive metallurgy.It is used to extract many metals from their ores, including silver, iron, copper, and other base metals.Smelting uses heat and a chemical reducing agent to decompose the ore, driving off other elements as gases or slag and leaving the metal base behind.

smelting | Definition & Facts |

Smelting, process by which a metal is obtained, either as the element or as a simple compound, from its ore by heating beyond the melting point, ordinarily in the presence of oxidizing agents, such as air, or reducing agents, such as coke.The first metal to be smelted in the ancient Middle East was probably copper (by 5000 bce), followed by tin, lead, and silver.

1 Lateritic nickel ore and origin of BF smelting process

lateritic nickel ore BF smelting process has the following technical characteristics different from that of conventional iron ore BF smelting process. 2.1 Sintering process of lateritic nickel ore Water in the surface of lateritic nickel ore is as high as 20%, and crystal water content is usually about

Smelting and refining | Glossary | Sumitomo Metal Mining ...

Smelting and refining. ... the copper concentrate pre-processing undertaken at Saijo uses pyrometallurgical processes and the nickel refining at the Niihama site uses hydrometallurgical processes entirely. ... The term ‘refining’ refers to any process that increases the grade or purity of a metal. Back to Glossary. Simulation of unit ...

Nickel processing |

Nickel carbonyl, Ni(CO) 4, a liquid at room temperature, is employed in the carbonyl nickel-refining process. Like all other carbonyls, it is poisonous. Nickel subsulfide, Ni 3 S 2, is the nickel component of matte involved in pyrometallurgy. Nickel oxide, NiO, is involved in …

Processing of Nickel Laterite Ores on the Rise -

While sulfide nickel ores are processed via upgrading to concentrates and then smelting, this approach is not applicable to laterite ores. A variety of approaches are available to process nickel laterite ores, with the most prevalent approaches explained below. The method(s) chosen is dependent on the composition of the unique ore source.

(NMBF). The nickel sulfide smelting - Mintek

1 Table I. Annual Primary Ni Output (Low-FeMatte) of World Nickel Sulfide Smelters Annual Ni Production Technology Country Plant from NMBF* Flash Smelting Canada Copper Cliff 133,400 Brazil Fortaleza 7,000 Finland Harjavalta 38,000 Russia Norilsk Nadezda 140,000 China Jinchuan~ 65,000 Australia Kalgoorlie 100,000 Bostwana BCl 27,400 Subtotal 510,800 Electric Furnace Smelting …

Nickel smelting and refining: A long road ahead for Indonesia

May 13, 2015· A consultant believes Indonesia shift to exporting refined ores would be a long process. Nickel smelting and refining: A long road ahead for Indonesia Indonesia's ban on ore exports is stimulating investment in processing plants, but Jim Lennon believes that the transition will be a long and slow process.

Nickel Mining and Processing: Everything you Need to Know

The Nickel Mining Process. Nickel mining occurs through extractive metallurgy, which is a material science that covers various types of ore, the washing process, concentration and separation, chemical processes and the extraction process. One of the most well-known purification processes is called the Mond Process, which is an extracting and ...

Understanding ferronickel smelting from laterites through ...

process variables and process outcomes during nickel laterite smelting. Keywords: Computational thermodynamics, Smelting, Laterites, Ferronickel Introduction Nickel is an important metal, with its use as an alloying element in steelmaking dominating all other uses. Most nickel is produced as the commercially pure metal, but

What Is Nickel Smelting? (with picture) -

Apr 04, 2019· Nickel smelting is the process that nickel ore goes through to eventually remove impurities and leave just the nickel metal. While the ores can come from different stones and sources, they have two categories: lateritic, or rocks found in tropical climates and which contain nickel; and sulfidic ore, which is mined from underground.

Cobalt processing |

In nickel smelting, most of the cobalt is recovered during electrolytic refining of the nickel by precipitation from solution, usually as a cobaltic hydroxide. But even in nickel smelting, cobalt starts to oxidize before the nickel and can be recovered from the final converter slag.

Nickel Processes.ppt | Nickel | Smelting - Scribd

Smelting Process Smelting process are governed by two basic chemical facts:-Separation of Nickel from Oxide gangue components such as silica and magnesia is readily achieved by smelting, due to large differences in the free energies of formation.-Only partial separation of nickel from iron is possible by selective reduction of

The Direct Outokumpu Nickel Smelting (DON) Process and the ...

The process was tested on a pilot plant scale at Outokumpu’s research centre in Pori and was found to be viable. The process was named the Direct Outokumpu Nickel Smelting Process or the DON Process. At the turn of the 1990s, Outokumpu studied various options to develop its nickel business and the Harjavalta operations.


acceptance for smelting of nickel sulphide concentrate, matte converting, and residues treatment (Table I). The Outotec JAE Ni Smelting Process3 developed with Jinchuan Nickel and ENFI is used at the Jinchuan Nickel Smelter to process over 1.1 Mt/a of nickel sulphide feeds. The process is also used at Jilin Nickel